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Beetle Deutsch Inhaltsverzeichnis

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Beetle Deutsch

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Archostemata mya Myxophaga mya Hydradephaga e. Dytiscidae diving beetles. Geadephaga e. Carabidae ground beetles. Staphylinidae mya , rove beetles.

Scarabaeoidea mya , scarabs, stag beetles, etc. Hydrophiloidea , water scavenger beetles. Histeroidea , clown beetles.

Dascilloidea Buprestoidea , jewel beetles. Byrrhoidea , pill and turtle beetles, etc. Elateroidea , click and soldier beetles, fireflies.

Bostrichoidea , deathwatch, powderpost and skin beetles. Coccinelloidea , ladybirds or lady beetles. Cleroidea , checkered beetles and allies.

Cucujoidea Chrysomelidae , leaf beetles. Cerambycidae , longhorn beetles. Curculionoidea , weevils.

Beetles are generally characterized by a particularly hard exoskeleton and hard forewings elytra not usable for flying.

Almost all beetles have mandibles that move in a horizontal plane. The mouthparts are rarely suctorial, though they are sometimes reduced; the maxillae always bear palps.

The antennae usually have 11 or fewer segments, except in some groups like the Cerambycidae longhorn beetles and the Rhipiceridae cicada parasite beetles.

The coxae of the legs are usually located recessed within a coxal cavity. The genitalic structures are telescoped into the last abdominal segment in all extant beetles.

Beetle larvae can often be confused with those of other endopterygote groups. This design provides armored defenses while maintaining flexibility.

The general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform, although specific organs and appendages vary greatly in appearance and function between the many families in the order.

Like all insects, beetles' bodies are divided into three sections: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. In many species accurate identification can only be made by examination of the unique male genitalic structures.

The head, having mouthparts projecting forward or sometimes downturned, is usually heavily sclerotized and is sometimes very large.

A few Longhorn beetles Cerambycidae and weevils as well as some fireflies Rhagophthalmidae [61] have divided eyes, while many have eyes that are notched, and a few have ocelli , small, simple eyes usually farther back on the head on the vertex ; these are more common in larvae than in adults.

Beetle antennae are primarily organs of sensory perception and can detect motion, odour and chemical substances, [64] but may also be used to physically feel a beetle's environment.

Beetle families may use antennae in different ways. For example, when moving quickly, tiger beetles may not be able to see very well and instead hold their antennae rigidly in front of them in order to avoid obstacles.

Some aquatic beetle species may use antennae for gathering air and passing it under the body whilst submerged. Equally, some families use antennae during mating, and a few species use them for defence.

In the cerambycid Onychocerus albitarsis , the antennae have venom injecting structures used in defence, which is unique among arthropods. Antennae may be clubbed , threadlike , angled , shaped like a string of beads , comb-like either on one side or both, bipectinate , or toothed.

The physical variation of antennae is important for the identification of many beetle groups. The Curculionidae have elbowed or geniculate antennae.

Feather like flabellate antennae are a restricted form found in the Rhipiceridae and a few other families.

The Silphidae have a capitate antennae with a spherical head at the tip. The Scarabaeidae typically have lamellate antennae with the terminal segments extended into long flat structures stacked together.

The Carabidae typically have thread-like antennae. The antennae arises between the eye and the mandibles and in the Tenebrionidae, the antennae rise in front of a notch that breaks the usually circular outline of the compound eye.

They are segmented and usually consist of 11 parts, the first part is called the scape and the second part is the pedicel.

The other segments are jointly called the flagellum. Beetles have mouthparts like those of grasshoppers.

The mandibles appear as large pincers on the front of some beetles. The mandibles are a pair of hard, often tooth-like structures that move horizontally to grasp, crush, or cut food or enemies see defence , below.

Two pairs of finger-like appendages, the maxillary and labial palpi, are found around the mouth in most beetles, serving to move food into the mouth.

In many species, the mandibles are sexually dimorphic, with those of the males enlarged enormously compared with those of females of the same species.

The thorax is segmented into the two discernible parts, the pro- and pterothorax. The pterothorax is the fused meso- and metathorax, which are commonly separated in other insect species, although flexibly articulate from the prothorax.

When viewed from below, the thorax is that part from which all three pairs of legs and both pairs of wings arise.

The abdomen is everything posterior to the thorax. This further segmentation is usually best seen on the abdomen.

The multisegmented legs end in two to five small segments called tarsi. Like many other insect orders, beetles have claws, usually one pair, on the end of the last tarsal segment of each leg.

While most beetles use their legs for walking, legs have been variously adapted for other uses. Aquatic beetles including the Dytiscidae diving beetles , Haliplidae , and many species of Hydrophilidae , the legs, often the last pair, are modified for swimming, typically with rows of long hairs.

Male diving beetles have suctorial cups on their forelegs that they use to grasp females. Species with such adaptations are found among the scarabs, ground beetles, and clown beetles Histeridae.

The hind legs of some beetles, such as flea beetles within Chrysomelidae and flea weevils within Curculionidae , have enlarged femurs that help them leap.

The forewings of beetles are not used for flight , but form elytra which cover the hind part of the body and protect the hindwings.

The elytra are usually hard shell-like structures which must be raised to allow the hind wings to move for flight. Beetles' flight wings are crossed with veins and are folded after landing, often along these veins, and stored below the elytra.

A fold jugum of the membrane at the base of each wing is characteristic. These include some ground beetles Carabidae and some true weevils Curculionidae , as well as desert- and cave-dwelling species of other families.

Many have the two elytra fused together, forming a solid shield over the abdomen. In a few families, both the ability to fly and the elytra have been lost, as in the glow-worms Phengodidae , where the females resemble larvae throughout their lives.

For example, the tansy beetle walks between habitats despite being physically capable of flight. The abdomen is the section behind the metathorax, made up of a series of rings, each with a hole for breathing and respiration, called a spiracle , composing three different segmented sclerites: the tergum, pleura, and the sternum.

The tergum in almost all species is membranous, or usually soft and concealed by the wings and elytra when not in flight. The pleura are usually small or hidden in some species, with each pleuron having a single spiracle.

The sternum is the most widely visible part of the abdomen, being a more or less sclerotized segment. The abdomen itself does not have any appendages, but some for example, Mordellidae have articulating sternal lobes.

The digestive system of beetles is primarily adapted for a herbivorous diet. Digestion takes place mostly in the anterior midgut , although in predatory groups like the Carabidae , most digestion occurs in the crop by means of midgut enzymes.

In the Elateridae , the larvae are liquid feeders that extraorally digest their food by secreting enzymes.

This is followed by the midgut, that varies in dimensions between species, with a large amount of cecum , and the hindgut, with varying lengths.

There are typically four to six Malpighian tubules. The nervous system in beetles contains all the types found in insects, varying between different species, from three thoracic and seven or eight abdominal ganglia which can be distinguished to that in which all the thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused to form a composite structure.

Like most insects, beetles inhale air, for the oxygen it contains, and exhale carbon dioxide , via a tracheal system.

Air enters the body through spiracles , and circulates within the haemocoel in a system of tracheae and tracheoles, through whose walls the gases can diffuse.

Diving beetles, such as the Dytiscidae , carry a bubble of air with them when they dive. Such a bubble may be contained under the elytra or against the body by specialized hydrophobic hairs.

The bubble covers at least some of the spiracles, permitting air to enter the tracheae. The air that it traps is in contact with oxygenated water, so as the animal's consumption depletes the oxygen in the bubble, more oxygen can diffuse in to replenish it.

Nitrogen is the most plentiful gas in the bubble, and the least soluble, so it constitutes a relatively static component of the bubble and acts as a stable medium for respiratory gases to accumulate in and pass through.

Occasional visits to the surface are sufficient for the beetle to re-establish the constitution of the bubble. Like other insects, beetles have open circulatory systems , based on hemolymph rather than blood.

As in other insects, a segmented tube-like heart is attached to the dorsal wall of the hemocoel. It has paired inlets or ostia at intervals down its length, and circulates the hemolymph from the main cavity of the haemocoel and out through the anterior cavity in the head.

Different glands are specialized for different pheromones to attract mates. Pheromones from species of Rutelinae are produced from epithelial cells lining the inner surface of the apical abdominal segments; amino acid-based pheromones of Melolonthinae are produced from eversible glands on the abdominal apex.

Other species produce different types of pheromones. Dermestids produce esters , and species of Elateridae produce fatty acid-derived aldehydes and acetates.

Light production is highly efficient, by oxidation of luciferin catalyzed by enzymes luciferases in the presence of adenosine triphosphate ATP and oxygen, producing oxyluciferin , carbon dioxide, and light.

Tympanal organs or hearing organs consist of a membrane tympanum stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons, are found in two families.

Both families are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies, with strong evidence indicating they function to detect the presence of bats by their ultrasonic echolocation.

Beetles are members of the superorder Endopterygota , and accordingly most of them undergo complete metamorphosis.

The typical form of metamorphosis in beetles passes through four main stages: the egg , the larva , the pupa , and the imago or adult. The larvae are commonly called grubs and the pupa sometimes is called the chrysalis.

In some species, the pupa may be enclosed in a cocoon constructed by the larva towards the end of its final instar.

Some beetles, such as typical members of the families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae , go further, undergoing hypermetamorphosis in which the first instar takes the form of a triungulin.

Some beetles have intricate mating behaviour. Pheromone communication is often important in locating a mate. Different species use different pheromones.

Scarab beetles such as the Rutelinae use pheromones derived from fatty acid synthesis , while other scarabs such as the Melolonthinae use amino acids and terpenoids.

Another way beetles find mates is seen in the fireflies Lampyridae which are bioluminescent , with abdominal light-producing organs.

The males and females engage in a complex dialogue before mating; each species has a unique combination of flight patterns, duration, composition, and intensity of the light produced.

Before mating, males and females may stridulate, or vibrate the objects they are on. In the Meloidae, the male climbs onto the dorsum of the female and strokes his antennae on her head, palps, and antennae.

In Eupompha , the male draws his antennae along his longitudinal vertex. They may not mate at all if they do not perform the precopulatory ritual.

For example, the mating of a Russian population of tansy beetle Chysolina graminis is preceded by an elaborate ritual involving the male tapping the female's eyes, pronotum and antennae with its antennae, which is not evident in the population of this species in the United Kingdom.

Competition can play a part in the mating rituals of species such as burying beetles Nicrophorus , the insects fighting to determine which can mate. Many male beetles are territorial and fiercely defend their territories from intruding males.

In such species, the male often has horns on the head or thorax, making its body length greater than that of a female. Copulation is generally quick, but in some cases lasts for several hours.

During copulation, sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilize the egg. Essentially all beetles lay eggs, though some myrmecophilous Aleocharinae and some Chrysomelinae which live in mountains or the subarctic are ovoviviparous , laying eggs which hatch almost immediately.

Beetle eggs generally have smooth surfaces and are soft, though the Cupedidae have hard eggs. Eggs vary widely between species: the eggs tend to be small in species with many instars larval stages , and in those that lay large numbers of eggs.

A female may lay from several dozen to several thousand eggs during her lifetime, depending on the extent of parental care. This ranges from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf, to the parental care provided by scarab beetles , which house, feed and protect their young.

The Attelabidae roll leaves and lay their eggs inside the roll for protection. The larva is usually the principal feeding stage of the beetle life cycle.

Larvae tend to feed voraciously once they emerge from their eggs. Some feed externally on plants, such as those of certain leaf beetles, while others feed within their food sources.

Examples of internal feeders are most Buprestidae and longhorn beetles. The larvae of many beetle families are predatory like the adults ground beetles, ladybirds, rove beetles.

The larval period varies between species, but can be as long as several years. The larvae of skin beetles undergo a degree of reversed development when starved, and later grow back to the previously attained level of maturity.

The cycle can be repeated many times see Biological immortality. Beetle larvae can be differentiated from other insect larvae by their hardened, often darkened heads, the presence of chewing mouthparts, and spiracles along the sides of their bodies.

Like adult beetles, the larvae are varied in appearance, particularly between beetle families. Beetles with somewhat flattened, highly mobile larvae include the ground beetles and rove beetles; their larvae are described as campodeiform.

Some beetle larvae resemble hardened worms with dark head capsules and minute legs. These are elateriform larvae, and are found in the click beetle Elateridae and darkling beetle Tenebrionidae families.

Some elateriform larvae of click beetles are known as wireworms. Beetles in the Scarabaeoidea have short, thick larvae described as scarabaeiform, more commonly known as grubs.

All beetle larvae go through several instars , which are the developmental stages between each moult. In many species, the larvae simply increase in size with each successive instar as more food is consumed.

In some cases, however, more dramatic changes occur. Among certain beetle families or genera, particularly those that exhibit parasitic lifestyles, the first instar the planidium is highly mobile to search out a host, while the following instars are more sedentary and remain on or within their host.

This is known as hypermetamorphosis ; it occurs in the Meloidae , Micromalthidae , and Ripiphoridae. Its first stage, the triungulin , has longer legs to go in search of the eggs of grasshoppers.

After feeding for a week it moults to the second stage, called the caraboid stage, which resembles the larva of a carabid beetle. In another week it moults and assumes the appearance of a scarabaeid larva — the scarabaeidoid stage.

Its penultimate larval stage is the pseudo-pupa or the coarcate larva, which will overwinter and pupate until the next spring. The larval period can vary widely.

A fungus feeding staphylinid Phanerota fasciata undergoes three moults in 3. Leiodidae completes its larval stage in the fruiting body of slime mold in 2 days and possibly represents the fastest growing beetles.

Dermestid beetles, Trogoderma inclusum can remain in an extended larval state under unfavourable conditions, even reducing their size between moults.

A larva is reported to have survived for 3. As with all endopterygotes, beetle larvae pupate, and from these pupae emerge fully formed, sexually mature adult beetles, or imagos.

Pupae never have mandibles they are adecticous. In most pupae, the appendages are not attached to the body and are said to be exarate ; in a few beetles Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae etc.

Adults have extremely variable lifespans, from weeks to years, depending on the species. It is believed that when furniture or house timbers are infested by beetle larvae, the timber already contained the larvae when it was first sawn up.

A birch bookcase 40 years old released adult Eburia quadrigeminata Cerambycidae , while Buprestis aurulenta and other Buprestidae have been documented as emerging as much as 51 years after manufacture of wooden items.

The elytra allow beetles to both fly and move through confined spaces, doing so by folding the delicate wings under the elytra while not flying, and folding their wings out just before takeoff.

The unfolding and folding of the wings is operated by muscles attached to the wing base; as long as the tension on the radial and cubital veins remains, the wings remain straight.

In some day-flying species for example, Buprestidae , Scarabaeidae , flight does not include large amounts of lifting of the elytra, having the metathorac wings extended under the lateral elytra margins.

Many rove beetles have greatly reduced elytra, and while they are capable of flight, they most often move on the ground: their soft bodies and strong abdominal muscles make them flexible, easily able to wriggle into small cracks.

Aquatic beetles use several techniques for retaining air beneath the water's surface. Diving beetles Dytiscidae hold air between the abdomen and the elytra when diving.

Hydrophilidae have hairs on their under surface that retain a layer of air against their bodies.

Adult crawling water beetles use both their elytra and their hind coxae the basal segment of the back legs in air retention, while whirligig beetles simply carry an air bubble down with them whenever they dive.

Beetles have a variety of ways to communicate, including the use of pheromones. The mountain pine beetle emits a pheromone to attract other beetles to a tree.

The mass of beetles are able to overcome the chemical defenses of the tree. After the tree's defenses have been exhausted, the beetles emit an anti-aggregation pheromone.

This species can stridulate to communicate, [93] but others may use sound to defend themselves when attacked. Parental care is found in a few families [95] of beetle, perhaps for protection against adverse conditions and predators.

Burying beetles are attentive parents, and participate in cooperative care and feeding of their offspring. Both parents work to bury small animal carcass to serve as a food resource for their young and build a brood chamber around it.

The parents prepare the carcass and protect it from competitors and from early decomposition. After their eggs hatch, the parents keep the larvae clean of fungus and bacteria and help the larvae feed by regurgitating food for them.

Some dung beetles provide parental care, collecting herbivore dung and laying eggs within that food supply, an instance of mass provisioning.

Some species do not leave after this stage, but remain to safeguard their offspring. Most species of beetles do not display parental care behaviors after the eggs have been laid.

Subsociality, where females guard their offspring, is well-documented in two families of Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae and Chrysomelinae.

Eusociality involves cooperative brood care including brood care of offspring from other individuals , overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labour into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

It is one of more than species of wood-boring Ambrosia beetles which distribute the spores of ambrosia fungi. Beetles are able to exploit a wide diversity of food sources available in their many habitats.

Some are omnivores , eating both plants and animals. Other beetles are highly specialized in their diet. Many species of leaf beetles, longhorn beetles, and weevils are very host-specific, feeding on only a single species of plant.

Ground beetles and rove beetles Staphylinidae , among others, are primarily carnivorous and catch and consume many other arthropods and small prey, such as earthworms and snails.

Some larger beetles or their larvae may consume vertebrates, particularly amphibians and fish. Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species.

This can range from dung , which is consumed by coprophagous species such as certain scarab beetles in the Scarabaeidae , to dead animals, which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles , Silphidae.

Some beetles found in dung and carrion are in fact predatory. These include members of the Histeridae and Silphidae , preying on the larvae of coprophagous and necrophagous insects.

Some beetles have special mycangia , structures for the transport of fungal spores. Beetles, both adults and larvae, are the prey of many animal predators including mammals from bats to rodents , birds , lizards , amphibians , fishes , dragonflies , robberflies , reduviid bugs , ants , other beetles, and spiders.

These include camouflage and mimicry against predators that hunt by sight, toxicity, and defensive behaviour. Camouflage is common and widespread among beetle families, especially those that feed on wood or vegetation, such as leaf beetles Chrysomelidae, which are often green and weevils.

In some species, sculpturing or various coloured scales or hairs cause beetles such as the avocado weevil Heilipus apiatus to resemble bird dung or other inedible objects.

Some longhorn beetles Cerambycidae are effective Batesian mimics of wasps. Beetles may combine coloration with behavioural mimicry, acting like the wasps they already closely resemble.

Many other beetles, including ladybirds , blister beetles , and lycid beetles secrete distasteful or toxic substances to make them unpalatable or poisonous, and are often aposematic , where bright or contrasting coloration warn off predators; many beetles and other insects mimic these chemically protected species.

Chemical defense is important in some species, usually being advertised by bright aposematic colours. Some Tenebrionidae use their posture for releasing noxious chemicals to warn off predators.

Chemical defences may serve purposes other than just protection from vertebrates, such as protection from a wide range of microbes. Some species sequester chemicals from the plants they feed on, incorporating them into their own defenses.

Other species have special glands to produce deterrent chemicals. The defensive glands of carabid ground beetles produce a variety of hydrocarbons , aldehydes , phenols , quinones , esters , and acids released from an opening at the end of the abdomen.

African carabid beetles for example, Anthia employ the same chemicals as ants: formic acid. The gland is made of two containing chambers, one for hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide , the other holding hydrogen peroxide and catalase enzymes.

The oxygen propels the noxious chemical spray as a jet that can be aimed accurately at predators. Large ground-dwelling beetles such as Carabidae , the rhinoceros beetle and the longhorn beetles defend themselves using strong mandibles , or heavily sclerotised armored spines or horns to deter or fight off predators.

Some combine it with thanatosis , in which they close up their appendages and "play dead". A few species of beetles are ectoparasitic on mammals.

One such species, Platypsyllus castoris , parasitises beavers Castor spp. This beetle lives as a parasite both as a larva and as an adult, feeding on epidermal tissue and possibly on skin secretions and wound exudates.

They are strikingly flattened dorsoventrally, no doubt as an adaptation for slipping between the beavers' hairs. They are wingless and eyeless, as are many other ectoparasites.

Beetle-pollinated flowers are usually large, greenish or off-white in color, and heavily scented. Scents may be spicy, fruity, or similar to decaying organic material.

Beetles were most likely the first insects to pollinate flowers. The plants' ovaries are usually well protected from the biting mouthparts of their pollinators.

The beetle families that habitually pollinate flowers are the Buprestidae , Cantharidae , Cerambycidae , Cleridae , Dermestidae , Lycidae , Melyridae , Mordellidae , Nitidulidae and Scarabaeidae.

Mutualism is well known in a few beetles, such as the ambrosia beetle , which partners with fungi to digest the wood of dead trees. The beetles excavate tunnels in dead trees in which they cultivate fungal gardens, their sole source of nutrition.

After landing on a suitable tree, an ambrosia beetle excavates a tunnel in which it releases spores of its fungal symbiont.

The fungus penetrates the plant's xylem tissue, digests it, and concentrates the nutrients on and near the surface of the beetle gallery, so the weevils and the fungus both benefit.

The beetles cannot eat the wood due to toxins, and uses its relationship with fungi to help overcome the defenses of its host tree in order to provide nutrition for their larvae.

Adult diapause is the most common form of diapause in Coleoptera. To endure the period without food often lasting many months adults prepare by accumulating reserves of lipids, glycogen, proteins and other substances needed for resistance to future hazardous changes of environmental conditions.

This diapause is induced by signals heralding the arrival of the unfavourable season; usually the cue is photoperiodic. Short decreasing day length serves as a signal of approaching winter and induces winter diapause hibernation.

This loss of body fat was a gradual process, occurring in combination with dehydration. All insects are poikilothermic , [] so the ability of a few beetles to live in extreme environments depends on their resilience to unusually high or low temperatures.

The low temperatures experienced by Cucujus clavipes can be survived through their deliberate dehydration in conjunction with the antifreeze proteins.

This concentrates the antifreezes several fold. Conversely, desert dwelling beetles are adapted to tolerate high temperatures.

These beetles also exhibits behavioural adaptions to tolerate the heat: they are able to stand erect on their tarsi to hold their bodies away from the hot ground, seek shade, and turn to face the sun so that only the front parts of their heads are directly exposed.

The fogstand beetle of the Namib Desert , Stenocara gracilipes , is able to collect water from fog , as its elytra have a textured surface combining hydrophilic water-loving bumps and waxy, hydrophobic troughs.

The beetle faces the early morning breeze, holding up its abdomen; droplets condense on the elytra and run along ridges towards their mouthparts.

Similar adaptations are found in several other Namib desert beetles such as Onymacris unguicularis. Some terrestrial beetles that exploit shoreline and floodplain habitats have physiological adaptations for surviving floods.

In the event of flooding, adult beetles may be mobile enough to move away from flooding, but larvae and pupa often cannot.

Adults of Cicindela togata are unable to survive immersion in water, but larvae are able to survive a prolonged period, up to 6 days, of anoxia during floods.

Anoxia tolerance in the larvae may have been sustained by switching to anaerobic metabolic pathways or by reducing metabolic rate. Many beetle species undertake annual mass movements which are termed as migrations.

These include the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus [] and many species of coccinellids. Several species of dung beetle, especially the sacred scarab, Scarabaeus sacer , were revered in Ancient Egypt.

The scarab was of prime significance in the funerary cult of ancient Egypt. The best-known of these are the Judean LMLK seals , where eight of 21 designs contained scarab beetles, which were used exclusively to stamp impressions on storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah.

Pliny the Elder discusses beetles in his Natural History , [] describing the stag beetle : "Some insects, for the preservation of their wings, are covered with a erust elytra — the beetle, for instance, the wing of which is peculiarly fine and frail.

To these insects a sting has been denied by Nature; but in one large kind we find horns of a remarkable length, two-pronged at the extremities, and forming pincers, which the animal closes when it is its intention to bite.

He is black, long and has hard wings like a great dung beetle". Many feed on economically important plants and stored plant products, including trees, cereals, tobacco, and dried fruits.

The boll weevil crossed the Rio Grande near Brownsville , Texas , to enter the United States from Mexico around , [] and had reached southeastern Alabama by It remains the most destructive cotton pest in North America.

The bark beetle, elm leaf beetle and the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis [] are among the species that attack elm trees. Bark beetles Scolytidae carry Dutch elm disease as they move from infected breeding sites to healthy trees.

The disease has devastated elm trees across Europe and North America. Some species of beetle have evolved immunity to insecticides.

For example, the Colorado potato beetle , Leptinotarsa decemlineata , is a destructive pest of potato plants. Its hosts include other members of the Solanaceae , such as nightshade , tomato , eggplant and capsicum , as well as the potato.

Different populations have between them developed resistance to all major classes of insecticide. The death watch beetle , Xestobium rufovillosum Ptinidae , is a serious pest of older wooden buildings in Europe.

It attacks hardwoods such as oak and chestnut , always where some fungal decay has taken or is taking place. The actual introduction of the pest into buildings is thought to take place at the time of construction.

Other pests include the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima , which feeds on young leaves , seedlings and mature coconut trees, causing serious economic damage in the Philippines.

Beetles can be beneficial to human economics by controlling the populations of pests. The larvae and adults of some species of lady beetles Coccinellidae feed on aphids that are pests.

Other lady beetles feed on scale insects , whitefly and mealybugs. For example, the genus Zygogramma is native to North America but has been used to control Parthenium hysterophorus in India and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Russia.

Dung beetles Scarabidae have been successfully used to reduce the populations of pestilent flies, such as Musca vetustissima and Haematobia exigua which are serious pests of cattle in Australia.

The Dermestidae are often used in taxidermy and in the preparation of scientific specimens, to clean soft tissue from bones.

Beetles are the most widely eaten insects, with about species used as food, usually at the larval stage. Due to their habitat specificity, many species of beetles have been suggested as suitable as indicators, their presence, numbers, or absence providing a measure of habitat quality.

Predatory beetles such as the tiger beetles Cicindelidae have found scientific use as an indicator taxon for measuring regional patterns of biodiversity.

They are suitable for this as their taxonomy is stable; their life history is well described; they are large and simple to observe when visiting a site; they occur around the world in many habitats, with species specialised to particular habitats; and their occurrence by species accurately indicates other species, both vertebrate and invertebrate.

Many beetles have beautiful and durable elytra that have been used as material in arts, with beetlewing the best example.

Whole beetles, either as-is or encased in clear plastic, are made into objects ranging from cheap souvenirs such as key chains to expensive fine-art jewellery.

In parts of Mexico, beetles of the genus Zopherus are made into living brooches by attaching costume jewelry and golden chains, which is made possible by the incredibly hard elytra and sedentary habits of the genus.

Fighting beetles are used for entertainment and gambling. This sport exploits the territorial behavior and mating competition of certain species of large beetles.

In the Chiang Mai district of northern Thailand, male Xylotrupes rhinoceros beetles are caught in the wild and trained for fighting. Females are held inside a log to stimulate the fighting males with their pheromones.

Beetles are sometimes used as instruments: the Onabasulu of Papua New Guinea historically used the weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus as a musical instrument by letting the human mouth serve as a variable resonance chamber for the wing vibrations of the live adult beetle.

Some species of beetle are kept as pets , for example diving beetles Dytiscidae may be kept in a domestic fresh water tank. In Japan the practice of keeping horned rhinoceros beetles Dynastinae and stag beetles Lucanidae is particularly popular amongst young boys.

Beetle collecting became extremely popular in the Victorian era. Several coleopteran adaptations have attracted interest in biomimetics with possible commercial applications.

The bombardier beetle 's powerful repellent spray has inspired the development of a fine mist spray technology, claimed to have a low carbon impact compared to aerosol sprays.

Living beetles have been used as cyborgs. A Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded project implanted electrodes into Mecynorhina torquata beetles, allowing them to be remotely controlled via a radio receiver held on its back, as proof-of-concept for surveillance work.

Research published in sought to create a robotic camera backpack for beetles. Since beetles form such a large part of the world's biodiversity, their conservation is important, and equally, loss of habitat and biodiversity is essentially certain to impact on beetles.

Many species of beetles have very specific habitats and long life cycles that make them vulnerable. Some species are highly threatened while others are already feared extinct.

In Japan the Genji firefly, Luciola cruciata , is extremely popular, and in South Africa the Addo elephant dung beetle offers promise for broadening ecotourism beyond the big five tourist mammal species.

Popular dislike of pest beetles, too, can be turned into public interest in insects, as can unusual ecological adaptations of species like the fairy shrimp hunting beetle, Cicinis bruchi.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Coleoptera. For other uses, see Beetle disambiguation. For the genus of moths, see Coeloptera.

For the heated food warming dish, see Chafing dish. For the band, see The Beatles. Order of insects.

Further information: Camouflage. Further information: Mimicry and Aposematism. Further information: Insect thermoregulation and Insect winter ecology.

Main article: Insect migration. Main article: Scarab artifact. Main article: Entomophagy. Main articles: Beetlewing and Live insect jewelry.

Further information: Biomimetics. ZooKeys 88 : 1— Online Etymology Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 20, Entomology 2 ed.

Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bibcode : Sci Species inventory. Bibcode : PNAS..

The Insects: An Outline of Entomology 5 ed. Flowering events and beetle diversity in Venezuela. Arthropods of tropical forests: Spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; p. The Coleopterists Bulletin. Journal of Natural History. Guinness World Records. Retrieved February 1, Book of Insect Records.

University of Florida. Archived from the original on July 18, New record and remeasuring of Scydosella musawasensis Hall, Coleoptera, Ptiliidae , the smallest known free-living insect".

ZooKeys : 61— The beetle fauna of Germany. Retrieved March 16, Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. Triassic Curculionoidea have the same status as Triassic Chrysoleloidea: a relationship that is highly improbably and presently impossible to verify.

Journal of Paleontology. Perm; Deutschland ". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. Archived from the original PDF on July 18, Paleontological Journal.

Archived from the original PDF on November 11, Archived from the original PDF on March 31, October 15, Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. Archived from the original PDF on July 4, Paleontological Journal 1A : 9— Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien.

Insect Science. A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile.

In the U. In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator.

The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood. The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.

Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels.

Inside were corduroy and leatherette high-bolstered sport seats and a small diameter three-spoke steering wheel with padded leather rim and a small red VW logo on the bottom spoke.

In some markets, the sport wheels in both 4. On the Super Beetle, the steering knuckle, and consequently the lower attachment point of the strut, was redesigned to improve handling and stability in the event of a tire blowout.

A limited-edition Big Beetle was introduced based on the LS. Available in unique metallic paint colors, the car featured styled-steel 5.

Both were finished in metallic gold and featured styled-steel 4. Inside were brown corduroy and leatherette seats, loop-pile carpet, and padded four-spoke deluxe steering wheel.

The Super Beetle Sun Bug included a sliding-steel sunroof. Mid-year, the Love Bug was introduced for North America: based on the standard Beetle, it was available only in Phoenix Red or Ravenna Green both colors shared with the VW-Porsche with all exterior trim finished in matte black.

A price leader, the Love Bug retailed for less than a standard Beetle. In , front turn indicators were moved from the top of the front fenders down into the bumper.

At the rear, the license plate light housing was now molded of plastic with a ribbed top surface. To comply with tightening emission standards, the cc engine in Japanese and North American markets received Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection, rather than the D-Jetronic system formerly used in the VW Type 3 and Type 4.

The injected engine received a new muffler and in California a catalytic converter. This necessitated a bulge in the rear apron under the rear bumper and replaced the distinctive twin "pea shooter" tailpipes with a single offset pipe, making injected models identifiable at a glance.

The received rack and pinion steering. To make up for the loss in North American markets, the standard Beetle was upgraded, regaining some of the features that were removed in In addition, the 2-speed ventilation fan was included, previously available in North America only on the larger Beetle.

The automatic stickshift option was discontinued as well. This was the final model year for the Beetle sedan in North America.

The convertible was offered in a "triple white" Champagne Edition in Alpine White with white top and interior with the padded deluxe steering wheel, tiger maple wood-grain dash trim and 4.

Approximately 1, Champagne Editions were produced. For , a new Champagne 2nd Edition convertible was launched, available in blue or red metallic paint with white leatherette interior.

Features included the 4. Approximately 1, were produced. In , VW offered an Epilogue Edition of the convertible in triple black with features similar to the Champagne Edition.

This would be the last year of convertible production worldwide as well as the final year for the Beetle in the US and Canada.

Volkswagen began its involvement in Ireland when in , Motor Distributors Limited, founded by Stephen O'Flaherty secured the franchise for the country at that year's Paris Motor Show.

The vehicles were assembled in a former tram depot at Shelbourne Road in Ballsbridge. This is now the premises for Ballsbridge Motors which is still a Volkswagen dealer.

The first Volkswagen ever assembled outside Germany was built here. In J. Jack Gilder had been fascinated by both the design and engineering of the Beetle when he came across one in Belgium during the war.

The Type 1 was introduced to Japan in , and was imported by Yanase dealerships in Japan. Its exterior dimensions and engine displacement were in compliance with Japanese Government regulations , which helped sales.

Several Japanese vehicles were introduced after the Beetle was sold in Japan, using an air-cooled engine and rear mounting of the engine, such as the Subaru , or an engine installed in the front, like the Honda N , the Suzuki Fronte , and the Mitsubishi Minica.

German production of the Beetle took place initially at the parent Wolfsburg plant until the Golf's introduction in , later expanding to the newer Emden and Hanover plants.

Volkswagen's takeover of Auto Union in saw 60, cars per year [82] being produced on the Audi assembly lines in Ingolstadt until The last German made cars were assembled at Emden in , after which the Puebla, Mexico plant became the principal source of Beetle production.

Brazilian assembly of the Beetle, where it is called " Fusca ", started in , with parts imported from Germany. In production resumed and continued to The Brazilian version retained the —64 body style Europe and U.

This body style was also produced in Mexico until The and s had the era taillights and headlights, fuel tank, but fitted with the up raised bumpers.

Brazilian CKD kits were shipped to Nigeria between and where Beetles were locally assembled. The Brazilian-produced versions have been sold in neighboring South American nations bordering Brazil, including Argentina, Uruguay, and Peru.

In Brazil, the Type 1 never received electronic fuel injection, instead retaining carburetors one or two one-barrels throughout its entire life, although the carburetion differs from engines of different years and specification.

The production of the air-cooled engine finally ended in , after more than 60 years. It was last used in the Brazilian version of the VW Bus , called the "Kombi", and was replaced by a 1.

Volkswagen do Brasil engaged in some string pulling in the early sixties when a law requiring taxis to have four doors and five seats was being considered.

After proving that the average taxi fare only carried 1. Mexican production began in because of agreements with companies such as Chrysler in Mexico and the Studebaker-Packard Corporation which assembled cars imported in CKD form.

In , they began to be locally produced. These models have the larger windshield, rear window, door and quarter glass starting in ; and the rear window from to German built models was used on the Mexican models from to , when it was replaced with the larger rear window used on and later German built Beetles.

This version, after the mids, saw little change with the incorporation of electronic ignition in , an anti-theft alarm system in , a catalytic converter in as required by law , as well as electronic Digifant fuel injection , hydraulic valve lifters, and a spin-on oil filter in The front turn signals were located in the bumper instead of the Beetle's traditional placement on top of the front fenders from the model year on, as they had been on German Beetles sold in Europe from onwards.

Starting in , the Mexican Beetle included front disc brakes, an alternator instead of a generator, and front automatic seat belts. During the model year, the chrome moldings disappeared leaving body colored bumpers and black moldings instead on some models.

By the start of the model year, exterior chrome or matt moldings were dropped altogether and Volkswagen de Mexico VWdM dropped the Sedan's flow-through ventilation system with all its fittings, notably the exterior crescent-shaped vents behind the rear side windows the same year.

These two versions were sold until mid Independent importers continued to supply several major countries, including Germany, France, and the UK until the end of production in Devoted fans of the car even discovered a way to circumvent US safety regulations by placing more recently manufactured Mexican Beetles on the floorpans of earlier, US-registered cars.

The Mexican Beetle along with its Brazilian counterpart was on the US DOT's Department of Transportation hot list of grey market imports after as the vehicle did not meet safety regulations.

Some of the Mexican Beetles have been registered in the United States since the NHTSA amendment granting the year cutoff where it and its Brazilian counterpart including the T2C can be legally registered in any of the 50 states this means a or earlier Mexican Beetle as of can be registered under the current NHTSA year cutoff exemption.

The end of production in Mexico can be attributed primarily to Mexican political measures: the Beetles no longer met emission standards for Mexico City, in which the ubiquitous Beetles were used as taxicabs; and the government outlawed their use as taxicabs because of rising crime rates, requiring only four-door vehicles be used.

The last Vocho taxis in Mexico City were retired at the end of In the late s consumers strongly preferred more modern cars such as the Mexican Chevy , the Nissan Tsuru , and the Volkswagen Pointer and Lupo.

However, demand for the Beetle was relatively high, especially in the s, with the workforce increasing at the start of the decade. The price of the base model without even a radio was pegged with the official minimum wage, by an agreement between the company and the government.

Official importation of the Volkswagen Beetle into Australia began in , with local assembly operations commencing the following year. Volkswagen Australia was formed in , and by locally produced body panels were being used for the first time.

When the European Type One body received the larger windows for the model year, Volkswagen Australia decided not to update, but continued to produce the smaller-windowed bodies, with unique features to the Australian versions.

This was due to the limited size of the market and the costs involved in retooling. In , Volkswagen Australia released its own locally designed utilitarian version of the Type 1, the Volkswagen Country Buggy or Type The last Australian-assembled Beetle was produced in July with assembly of other models ending in February Several features from the Super Beetle were grafted onto the South African Beetle S, such as curved windshield, new dashboard, and larger taillights, while retaining the Beetle chassis and mechanicals.

The model was introduced to South Africa in ; it was marketed as the cheapest 1. In late , the sporty SP Beetle arrived — this version received bright red, yellow, or silver paint with black stripes, a front spoiler, wide tyres, and a more powerful engine with twin carburettors and a freer flowing exhaust.

Also new for were rubber bumper strips for all s, and the same taillights with backup lights were now fitted across the range.

The bigger-engined model was then phased out around August , leaving only the model in production. Various cars and designs have each claimed to have been the original "influencers" of Porsche's Volkswagen concept.

Hitler saw the car in at an auto show. These small cars were designed according to the patents by Josef Ganz and featured transverse, two-stroke, two-cylinder engines mounted in front of the rear axle.

In , Tatra built the V prototype, which had an air-cooled flat-twin engine mounted at the rear. Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras.

It also featured a similar central structural tunnel found in the Beetle. Just before the start of the Second World War, Tatra had ten legal claims filed against VW for infringement of patents.

On Sept 28, , Roy Fedden, most known by his participation in the Bristol Single Sleeve valve engine research, headed by Harry Ricardo , applied for a British patent 'Improvements related to road vehicles', granted GB, 24 July , describing a 2-door, rear-engined car, identical in arrangement and look to VW 'Käfer'.

Espacenet - Original document. It has also been pointed out that the VW Beetle bears a striking resemblance to John Tjaarda 's design for a streamlined, rear-engined car, that he created working for Briggs Manufacturing Company.

The Beetle has been modified for use in drag racing ; [] its rearward RR layout weight distribution keeps the weight over the rear wheels, maximizing grip off the starting line.

The car's weight is reduced for a full competition drag Beetle, further improving the grip and also the power-to-weight ratio.

To prevent this, "wheelie bars" were added. The Beetle is also used as the basis for the Formula Vee open-wheel racing category: specifically, the front suspension crossmember assembly the shock absorber mounts are sometimes removed, depending on regulations in the class , and the engine and transaxle assembly usually the earlier swing-axle type, not the later double-jointed axle.

In this configuration, FV would become one of the most popular entry-level motorsports classes of its time. Volkswagen Beetle-style bodies are fitted to space frame racing chassis, and are used in the Uniroyal Fun Cup , which includes the longest continuous motor-race in the world, the 25 Hours of Spa.

It is an affordable entry-level series that gentleman drivers race. Especially the Austrian sole distributor Porsche Salzburg now Porsche Austria seriously entered the Volkswagen in local and European contests in the s and early s.

Victories were achieved in on Elba for overall and class, Acropolis for class 5th overall , Austrian championship , January Rallye for overall and class.

Rally of minutes for overall 2nd 1st in class. The fuel crisis, along with the arrival of the Volkswagen Golf Rabbit , put an end to the days of unofficially supported rallying in All vehicles either used for training or actual racing were sold off to privateers, many kept racing with noticeable results until the early s.

Beetles were used in the Trans-Am Series for the two-litre class from to and again in A Volkswagen won its class in the Armstrong in Australia in both and These can be seen in the documentary movie Dust to Glory.

The general concept is to take any Beetle, of any age or model from the 40s through to s, and with minimal restrictions, allowing parts from various years to be interchanged, and of course the cars being prepared to the MSA safety requirements cage, restraints, fire system etc.

Essentially the cars must be air-cooled Beetles any age and parts can be swapped between years and models , with a inch x 6-inch max wheel size with a control tyre.

Engines must be based on a Type 1 case, with no electronic fuel injection or ignition and no forced induction, with an unlimited capacity.

Other regulations apply. Volkswagen has joined up with eClassics to allow beetle owners to convert their car to electric. The battery will have a total capacity of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. For the — car, see Volkswagen New Beetle. For the — car, see Volkswagen Beetle A5.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of Volkswagen in Ireland.

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Categories : Volkswagen Beetle s cars s cars s cars s cars s cars s cars s cars Cars introduced in Cars powered by boxer engines Cars powered by rear-mounted 4-cylinder engines Compact cars Convertibles Ferdinand Porsche First car made by manufacturer German inventions of the Nazi period Rally cars Rear-engined vehicles Rear-wheel-drive vehicles Sedans Taxicab vehicles.

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Colorado potato beetle. Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Ufo Nrw in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Tools to create Panda Mania Marvel own word lists and quizzes. Although Leder was sent to Mongolia with the task of collecting insects, his interest shifted through his close contact with the residents from the beetles to Mongolian culture, whereby his primary interest lay in everyday religious practice. Dieser Käfer kann einen Waldbrand 80km entfernt wahrnehmen. Aber traurig auf dem echten Piel Affe Käfer die gebrachten Golf-Doppelgängerspiegel. Upgrade your vehicle Inselspiel this new ashtray again. Beetle an. Thus, the microstructure of the surface has a stronger effect on the adhesion of the beetle than the cell form.

Some species are highly threatened while others are already feared extinct. In Japan the Genji firefly, Luciola cruciata , is extremely popular, and in South Africa the Addo elephant dung beetle offers promise for broadening ecotourism beyond the big five tourist mammal species.

Popular dislike of pest beetles, too, can be turned into public interest in insects, as can unusual ecological adaptations of species like the fairy shrimp hunting beetle, Cicinis bruchi.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Coleoptera. For other uses, see Beetle disambiguation. For the genus of moths, see Coeloptera.

For the heated food warming dish, see Chafing dish. For the band, see The Beatles. Order of insects. Further information: Camouflage. Further information: Mimicry and Aposematism.

Further information: Insect thermoregulation and Insect winter ecology. Main article: Insect migration. Main article: Scarab artifact.

Main article: Entomophagy. Main articles: Beetlewing and Live insect jewelry. Further information: Biomimetics.

ZooKeys 88 : 1— Online Etymology Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 20, Entomology 2 ed. Species Diversity in Space and Time.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bibcode : Sci Species inventory. Bibcode : PNAS.. The Insects: An Outline of Entomology 5 ed.

Flowering events and beetle diversity in Venezuela. Arthropods of tropical forests: Spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; p. The Coleopterists Bulletin. Journal of Natural History.

Guinness World Records. Retrieved February 1, Book of Insect Records. University of Florida. Archived from the original on July 18, New record and remeasuring of Scydosella musawasensis Hall, Coleoptera, Ptiliidae , the smallest known free-living insect".

ZooKeys : 61— The beetle fauna of Germany. Retrieved March 16, Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. Triassic Curculionoidea have the same status as Triassic Chrysoleloidea: a relationship that is highly improbably and presently impossible to verify.

Journal of Paleontology. Perm; Deutschland ". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. Archived from the original PDF on July 18, Paleontological Journal.

Archived from the original PDF on November 11, Archived from the original PDF on March 31, October 15, Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia.

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May 14, National Geographic. January Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. As a matter of fact, their smaller, stouter pincers means the female can deliver a much more painful bite than the male.

Stag beetles are not venomous or harmful in any way. The larvae live in rotten stumps and logs and prey on the insects there. The adults often fly to lights on warm summer nights.

Habitat: Larvae live in rotten wood; adults often fly to lights at night. Notes: These beetles are harmless, although the females can deliver a pinch with their short, sharp mandibles.

The eastern Hercules beetle is a kind of rhinoceros beetle found in the United States. These very large beetles are in the genus Dynastes , which is found throughout the Americas.

Tropical species are among the largest insects in the world. In the United States, Dynastes beetles are generally uncommon, although the beautiful, black-spotted eastern Hercules beetles, Dynastes tityus , is occasionally found in large colonies on trees.

These insects are harmless despite their large size and the male's huge horns. Habitat: Larvae live in rotten wood; adults sometimes congregate on old trees.

Male and female eastern Hercules beetle, Dynastes tityus. If one could conclude as to the nature of the Creator from a study of his creation it would appear that God has a special fondness for stars and beetles.

This large, handsome beetle is often found at lights in early summer, hence one of its other common names, the spotted June beetle.

The adults are harmless and feed on grapevines, generally causing very little damage, and are not considered a pest. There are two variations of this species, one in the North and one in the South the northern version has darker legs.

This insect lives in Eastern North America, as far south as Florida; its range extends west to Nebraska and eastern Kansas. They are very active fliers and will quickly take to the air if disturbed, although they can be safely handled.

They live in woods, hedges, and overgrown areas, where the larvae grubs feed on rotten wood under the soil; they pupate in shallow chambers and the adult beetle emerges in the summer.

Habitat: Larvae are grubs that live under soil and feed on roots; adults eat the leaves of grape and other plants. Notes: These beetles are related to the more common brown "June bug.

Ten-lined June beetle showing large, broad antennae. Like the grapevine beetle above to which it is related, this is a large, showy beetle that often shows up at lights around homes and urban areas.

However this beetle is confined to the American Southwest, where it can be very common. Ten-lined June beetles have an interesting way of defending themselves, which you may know about if you have ever tried to pick one up.

If you grab them or bother them, these beetles will suddenly make a loud, vibrating buzz that zings your fingers and is quite startling.

Notes: These big, beautiful insects are completely harmless to humans. The Japanese beetle is one of the most destructive pests in the United States, chewing its way through the leaves of upwards of different species, especially rose, grapes, linden, and crepe myrtle.

It's also one of the prettiest beetles in North America, with copper-colored wing covers elytra and an iridescent green thorax and head.

This beetle flies very well, and resembles a bee as it hovers among the flowers and blossoms of your backyard primrose. In North America, however, P.

The first written evidence of this beetle's invasion of North America is from , when it showed up in a New Jersey greenhouse, hungry and ready to stage a take-over.

At present, only nine states, all in the West, are free from this pest. Habitat: Larvae are grubs that live under soil and feed on roots; adults eat the leaves of more than plants.

Notes: This invasive species has only been in the US for about years. Graphic showing the underground larval and pupation stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica.

Ground beetles in the subfamily Carabinae make up a very large group of beetles, many of which are those similar-looking brown or black beetles you see scurrying across the sidewalk.

These ground beetles live under stones and logs, or under your porch, and they are totally harmless to humans: in fact, they do humans a service by preying on some less-desirable insects like ants.

It's unusual to see these beetles inside your home, so if you have a bug, or bugs, that look like beetles around your house, you should have a closer look -- they could be roaches.

Cockroaches are an entirely different group of insects from beetles, and if you do have cockroaches, you should take steps to get rid of them. Habitat: These beetles live outside, under stones and logs, and prowl around looking for small insects to eat.

Notes: Although they may look like cockroaches, you will rarely find ground beetles inside your home. Tiger beetles are very cool insects that most people hardly notice, even though they are quite common.

These beetles often occur in sandy areas, but some show up on hot summer sidewalks. They have long legs, big eyes, and sharp pincers, and they are jumpy and nervous -- tiger beetles will fly if you get too close and land about 5 feet away, repeating the action if you move towards them.

I always loved trying to catch tiger beetles in the summer when I was a kid. Many are very beautifully colored in iridescent green and blue, and the challenge of grabbing one can keep a kid occupied for hours.

Notes: There are many similar-looking species in this group, which makes identifying them a challenge for amateurs and professional alike.

If you come across a dead bird or mouse, there's a good chance that some of these beetles will be on the scene.

They are large and brightly colored, which makes them hard to miss. Carrion beetles are also sometimes called "burying beetles," because some species dig a hole under the carcass until it falls in.

Then the beetles lays eggs on the food source and covers it up. This group has many other fascinating habits, all of them on the gross side, but true scientists, citizen or otherwise, aren't fazed by a little carrion.

There are two common species in this group that look very different. Most Silphidae beetle are good flyers and sometimes come to lights. Scientific Name: Family Silphidae; various species around the world.

Notes: The habits of this insect are amazing in their adaptations to feeding on and around carrion. The name says it all -- these beetles love to find a dead mouse or bird and use it as a food source.

Filbert weevil showing characteristic "snout". Weevils are generally small, harmless beetles with a pronounced nose or "snout.

And you probably never even noticed them! The place where most people encounter weevils is in the pantry, where a few species can become pests by invading stored beans and grains.

Many people have also heard of the "boll weevil," which feeds on cotton and can ruin a cotton crop by damaging the fibers in the "boll.

Once you are tuned in to the world of small animals, you will certainly start noticing a weevil or two in your surroundings.

Unless they're in your stored food, there's no reason to fear or harm these little creatures. Scientific Name: Superfamily Curculionoidea ; many species around the world.

Habitat: Found just about everywhere; they have adapted to nearly every corner of the world. Notes: The habits of this insect are amazing in their adaptations to the food and conditions of virtually any environment.

The beautiful Green Weevil genus Polydrusus is very common in late summer. Both Beetles were available with or without the L Package.

The convertible was now based on the body. While it lacked the front disc brakes that normally accompanied the larger motor, it was fitted with brake drums that were slightly larger than the standard Beetle.

With the Super Beetle being sold as the premium model in North America, the standard Beetle, while retaining the same cc engine, was stripped of many of its earlier features in order to reduce the selling price.

An engine compartment socket for the proprietary VW Diagnosis system was also introduced. The rear luggage area was fitted with a folding parcel shelf.

A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile.

In the U. In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator.

The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood. The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.

Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels.

Inside were corduroy and leatherette high-bolstered sport seats and a small diameter three-spoke steering wheel with padded leather rim and a small red VW logo on the bottom spoke.

In some markets, the sport wheels in both 4. On the Super Beetle, the steering knuckle, and consequently the lower attachment point of the strut, was redesigned to improve handling and stability in the event of a tire blowout.

A limited-edition Big Beetle was introduced based on the LS. Available in unique metallic paint colors, the car featured styled-steel 5.

Both were finished in metallic gold and featured styled-steel 4. Inside were brown corduroy and leatherette seats, loop-pile carpet, and padded four-spoke deluxe steering wheel.

The Super Beetle Sun Bug included a sliding-steel sunroof. Mid-year, the Love Bug was introduced for North America: based on the standard Beetle, it was available only in Phoenix Red or Ravenna Green both colors shared with the VW-Porsche with all exterior trim finished in matte black.

A price leader, the Love Bug retailed for less than a standard Beetle. In , front turn indicators were moved from the top of the front fenders down into the bumper.

At the rear, the license plate light housing was now molded of plastic with a ribbed top surface. To comply with tightening emission standards, the cc engine in Japanese and North American markets received Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection, rather than the D-Jetronic system formerly used in the VW Type 3 and Type 4.

The injected engine received a new muffler and in California a catalytic converter. This necessitated a bulge in the rear apron under the rear bumper and replaced the distinctive twin "pea shooter" tailpipes with a single offset pipe, making injected models identifiable at a glance.

The received rack and pinion steering. To make up for the loss in North American markets, the standard Beetle was upgraded, regaining some of the features that were removed in In addition, the 2-speed ventilation fan was included, previously available in North America only on the larger Beetle.

The automatic stickshift option was discontinued as well. This was the final model year for the Beetle sedan in North America.

The convertible was offered in a "triple white" Champagne Edition in Alpine White with white top and interior with the padded deluxe steering wheel, tiger maple wood-grain dash trim and 4.

Approximately 1, Champagne Editions were produced. For , a new Champagne 2nd Edition convertible was launched, available in blue or red metallic paint with white leatherette interior.

Features included the 4. Approximately 1, were produced. In , VW offered an Epilogue Edition of the convertible in triple black with features similar to the Champagne Edition.

This would be the last year of convertible production worldwide as well as the final year for the Beetle in the US and Canada. Volkswagen began its involvement in Ireland when in , Motor Distributors Limited, founded by Stephen O'Flaherty secured the franchise for the country at that year's Paris Motor Show.

The vehicles were assembled in a former tram depot at Shelbourne Road in Ballsbridge. This is now the premises for Ballsbridge Motors which is still a Volkswagen dealer.

The first Volkswagen ever assembled outside Germany was built here. In J. Jack Gilder had been fascinated by both the design and engineering of the Beetle when he came across one in Belgium during the war.

The Type 1 was introduced to Japan in , and was imported by Yanase dealerships in Japan. Its exterior dimensions and engine displacement were in compliance with Japanese Government regulations , which helped sales.

Several Japanese vehicles were introduced after the Beetle was sold in Japan, using an air-cooled engine and rear mounting of the engine, such as the Subaru , or an engine installed in the front, like the Honda N , the Suzuki Fronte , and the Mitsubishi Minica.

German production of the Beetle took place initially at the parent Wolfsburg plant until the Golf's introduction in , later expanding to the newer Emden and Hanover plants.

Volkswagen's takeover of Auto Union in saw 60, cars per year [82] being produced on the Audi assembly lines in Ingolstadt until The last German made cars were assembled at Emden in , after which the Puebla, Mexico plant became the principal source of Beetle production.

Brazilian assembly of the Beetle, where it is called " Fusca ", started in , with parts imported from Germany.

In production resumed and continued to The Brazilian version retained the —64 body style Europe and U.

This body style was also produced in Mexico until The and s had the era taillights and headlights, fuel tank, but fitted with the up raised bumpers.

Brazilian CKD kits were shipped to Nigeria between and where Beetles were locally assembled. The Brazilian-produced versions have been sold in neighboring South American nations bordering Brazil, including Argentina, Uruguay, and Peru.

In Brazil, the Type 1 never received electronic fuel injection, instead retaining carburetors one or two one-barrels throughout its entire life, although the carburetion differs from engines of different years and specification.

The production of the air-cooled engine finally ended in , after more than 60 years. It was last used in the Brazilian version of the VW Bus , called the "Kombi", and was replaced by a 1.

Volkswagen do Brasil engaged in some string pulling in the early sixties when a law requiring taxis to have four doors and five seats was being considered.

After proving that the average taxi fare only carried 1. Mexican production began in because of agreements with companies such as Chrysler in Mexico and the Studebaker-Packard Corporation which assembled cars imported in CKD form.

In , they began to be locally produced. These models have the larger windshield, rear window, door and quarter glass starting in ; and the rear window from to German built models was used on the Mexican models from to , when it was replaced with the larger rear window used on and later German built Beetles.

This version, after the mids, saw little change with the incorporation of electronic ignition in , an anti-theft alarm system in , a catalytic converter in as required by law , as well as electronic Digifant fuel injection , hydraulic valve lifters, and a spin-on oil filter in The front turn signals were located in the bumper instead of the Beetle's traditional placement on top of the front fenders from the model year on, as they had been on German Beetles sold in Europe from onwards.

Starting in , the Mexican Beetle included front disc brakes, an alternator instead of a generator, and front automatic seat belts.

During the model year, the chrome moldings disappeared leaving body colored bumpers and black moldings instead on some models. By the start of the model year, exterior chrome or matt moldings were dropped altogether and Volkswagen de Mexico VWdM dropped the Sedan's flow-through ventilation system with all its fittings, notably the exterior crescent-shaped vents behind the rear side windows the same year.

These two versions were sold until mid Independent importers continued to supply several major countries, including Germany, France, and the UK until the end of production in Devoted fans of the car even discovered a way to circumvent US safety regulations by placing more recently manufactured Mexican Beetles on the floorpans of earlier, US-registered cars.

The Mexican Beetle along with its Brazilian counterpart was on the US DOT's Department of Transportation hot list of grey market imports after as the vehicle did not meet safety regulations.

Some of the Mexican Beetles have been registered in the United States since the NHTSA amendment granting the year cutoff where it and its Brazilian counterpart including the T2C can be legally registered in any of the 50 states this means a or earlier Mexican Beetle as of can be registered under the current NHTSA year cutoff exemption.

The end of production in Mexico can be attributed primarily to Mexican political measures: the Beetles no longer met emission standards for Mexico City, in which the ubiquitous Beetles were used as taxicabs; and the government outlawed their use as taxicabs because of rising crime rates, requiring only four-door vehicles be used.

The last Vocho taxis in Mexico City were retired at the end of In the late s consumers strongly preferred more modern cars such as the Mexican Chevy , the Nissan Tsuru , and the Volkswagen Pointer and Lupo.

However, demand for the Beetle was relatively high, especially in the s, with the workforce increasing at the start of the decade. The price of the base model without even a radio was pegged with the official minimum wage, by an agreement between the company and the government.

Official importation of the Volkswagen Beetle into Australia began in , with local assembly operations commencing the following year.

Volkswagen Australia was formed in , and by locally produced body panels were being used for the first time. When the European Type One body received the larger windows for the model year, Volkswagen Australia decided not to update, but continued to produce the smaller-windowed bodies, with unique features to the Australian versions.

This was due to the limited size of the market and the costs involved in retooling. In , Volkswagen Australia released its own locally designed utilitarian version of the Type 1, the Volkswagen Country Buggy or Type The last Australian-assembled Beetle was produced in July with assembly of other models ending in February Several features from the Super Beetle were grafted onto the South African Beetle S, such as curved windshield, new dashboard, and larger taillights, while retaining the Beetle chassis and mechanicals.

The model was introduced to South Africa in ; it was marketed as the cheapest 1. In late , the sporty SP Beetle arrived — this version received bright red, yellow, or silver paint with black stripes, a front spoiler, wide tyres, and a more powerful engine with twin carburettors and a freer flowing exhaust.

Also new for were rubber bumper strips for all s, and the same taillights with backup lights were now fitted across the range. The bigger-engined model was then phased out around August , leaving only the model in production.

Various cars and designs have each claimed to have been the original "influencers" of Porsche's Volkswagen concept. Hitler saw the car in at an auto show.

These small cars were designed according to the patents by Josef Ganz and featured transverse, two-stroke, two-cylinder engines mounted in front of the rear axle.

In , Tatra built the V prototype, which had an air-cooled flat-twin engine mounted at the rear. Both Hitler and Porsche were influenced by the Tatras.

It also featured a similar central structural tunnel found in the Beetle. Just before the start of the Second World War, Tatra had ten legal claims filed against VW for infringement of patents.

On Sept 28, , Roy Fedden, most known by his participation in the Bristol Single Sleeve valve engine research, headed by Harry Ricardo , applied for a British patent 'Improvements related to road vehicles', granted GB, 24 July , describing a 2-door, rear-engined car, identical in arrangement and look to VW 'Käfer'.

Espacenet - Original document. It has also been pointed out that the VW Beetle bears a striking resemblance to John Tjaarda 's design for a streamlined, rear-engined car, that he created working for Briggs Manufacturing Company.

The Beetle has been modified for use in drag racing ; [] its rearward RR layout weight distribution keeps the weight over the rear wheels, maximizing grip off the starting line.

The car's weight is reduced for a full competition drag Beetle, further improving the grip and also the power-to-weight ratio. To prevent this, "wheelie bars" were added.

The Beetle is also used as the basis for the Formula Vee open-wheel racing category: specifically, the front suspension crossmember assembly the shock absorber mounts are sometimes removed, depending on regulations in the class , and the engine and transaxle assembly usually the earlier swing-axle type, not the later double-jointed axle.

In this configuration, FV would become one of the most popular entry-level motorsports classes of its time. Volkswagen Beetle-style bodies are fitted to space frame racing chassis, and are used in the Uniroyal Fun Cup , which includes the longest continuous motor-race in the world, the 25 Hours of Spa.

It is an affordable entry-level series that gentleman drivers race. Especially the Austrian sole distributor Porsche Salzburg now Porsche Austria seriously entered the Volkswagen in local and European contests in the s and early s.

Victories were achieved in on Elba for overall and class, Acropolis for class 5th overall , Austrian championship , January Rallye for overall and class.

Rally of minutes for overall 2nd 1st in class. The fuel crisis, along with the arrival of the Volkswagen Golf Rabbit , put an end to the days of unofficially supported rallying in All vehicles either used for training or actual racing were sold off to privateers, many kept racing with noticeable results until the early s.

Beetles were used in the Trans-Am Series for the two-litre class from to and again in A Volkswagen won its class in the Armstrong in Australia in both and These can be seen in the documentary movie Dust to Glory.

The general concept is to take any Beetle, of any age or model from the 40s through to s, and with minimal restrictions, allowing parts from various years to be interchanged, and of course the cars being prepared to the MSA safety requirements cage, restraints, fire system etc.

Essentially the cars must be air-cooled Beetles any age and parts can be swapped between years and models , with a inch x 6-inch max wheel size with a control tyre.

Engines must be based on a Type 1 case, with no electronic fuel injection or ignition and no forced induction, with an unlimited capacity. Other regulations apply.

Volkswagen has joined up with eClassics to allow beetle owners to convert their car to electric. The battery will have a total capacity of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. For the — car, see Volkswagen New Beetle. For the — car, see Volkswagen Beetle A5.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of Volkswagen in Ireland.

Main article: Volkswagen Beetle in Mexico. The samba brochure. Retrieved 1 June The samba sales brochure.

The Samba brochure in German. Retrieved 3 June Deutsche Autos —, Band 3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch. Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 2 December Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 30 September Milano: Editoriale Domus S.

February Retrieved 15 January Krause Publications. Automotive Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 14 June The Volkswagen Beetle.

Osprey Publishing. Winston-Salem Journal. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 2 March Small Car : 42— January Retrieved 24 September The New York Times.

Warfare History Network. Sovereign Media. Retrieved 23 November Der Spiegel. Retrieved 17 May Last edition Beetle. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 3 December

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